Acute and sub-acute toxicity evaluation of the aqueous extract from of Stephania abyssinica leaves
Chamberlin FODEM, Elvine P. NGUELEFACK-MBUYO, Télesphore Benoit NGUELEFACK
Research Unit of Neuro-Inflammation and Cardiovascular Pharmacology, faculty of Science, University of Dschang-Cameroon
Background: Stephania abyssinica is used in folk medicine for the treatment of plethora of ailments including dysentery, tuberculosis, hyperglycemia, malaria and heart problems. Despite, few studies have been undertaken to evaluate its potential toxicity.
Aim of the study: This study was to investigate the acute and sub-acute toxicity of the aqueous extract from leaves of Stephania abyssinica (AESA).
Materials and methods: In the acute toxicity study, Swiss mice of both sexes were orally administrated with AESA at single doses (750, 1500, 3000 and 6000 mg/kg). Neurobehavioral toxicity was conducted by evaluating locomotor activity and sensitivity to pain. Toxic symptoms, body weight and death were recorded for 7 consecutive days.
In the sub-acute toxicity study, AESA (43, 86 and 172 mg/kg) was orally administered to Wistar rats of both sexes for 28 days. General behaviour was observed daily and body weight recorded weekly. Biochemical and haematological analysis and histopathological examination of the heart, liver and kidney were conducted.
Results: Acute toxicity test showed neither death nor severe adverse effects. The median lethal dose was estimated to be higher than 6000 mg/kg.
Sub-acute studies revealed no significant adverse effects with regard to physical appearance, body weight, relative organ weights, and urine, haematological and biochemical parameters. However, histopathological examination of the liver revealed a vascular congestion, a mild eosinophilic dejection and an apparent tubular disorganization was observed at the level of the kidney with dose of 172 mg/kg.
Conclusion: Results provide evidence that AESA is relatively safe at lower doses and support its therapeutic use as a traditional remedy.
Keywords: Stephania abyssinica, toxicity, adverse effect, Histopathological examination.