Background: The increasing prevalence of anthelmintic-resistant strains of gastrointestinal nematodes and high cost of conventional anthelmintic has incited researchers to find an alternative to the synthetic anthelmintic drugs. Medicinal plants rich in condensed tannins showed the potential anthelmintic against gastrointestinal nematodes and the mutant strains of Caenorhabditis elegans. Toxocara canis and Ancylostoma caninum are an economically parasites in dog and Ascaris suum and Trichuris suis are the important parasites which impairs pigs production.
Methods: Hydro-ethanolc extract of Combretum mucronatum leaves was prepared, analysed and standardized by UPLC. TLC was used for qualitative phytochemical compounds analysis. Anthelmintic activity was assessed on the third stages of the A. caninum, A. suum, T. canis and T. suis.
Results: TLC revealed the proanthocyanidins and flavonoids. Hydro-ehanolic extract contains procyanidin C1, epicatechin, catechin, isoorientin, vitexin, procyanidin b5. Extract contains 1.03 and 16.35 % of epicatechin and catechin respectively. Extract was the highest active against T. suis and A. suum with IC50 values ranging 4.28 ± 2.36 and 5.75 ± 4.79 µg/mL respectively. IC50 of extract on T. canis and A. caninum were 150 ± 28.36 and 34 ± 14.9 µg/mL respectively. Migration inhibition assays were dose-dependent. Extract was very active on T. suis and A. suum.
Conclusion: C. mucronatum leaves extract showed an anthelmintic efficient against nematode parasites of the dog and pigs. This plant contains bioactive compounds responsible for anthelmintic efficacy.
Keywords: animal parasites, Combretum mucronatum, anthelmintic, Eipcatechin, Catechin.