Introduction: During the last decade, arboviroses transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes have considerable become agrowing health challenge worldwide. The most important diseases such as dengue, chikungunya, yellow fever and zika are considered as emerging/re-emerging in sub-Saharan Africa. Since 2006, the frequency of fever cases associated with these diseases has increased considerably in Cameroon and is correlated with the wide distribution of their main vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus throughout the country. The city of Yaoundé records the highest number of cases of arboviruses. Apart from epidemiological data on the prevalence of these diseases, very little is known on Aedes species distribution in Cameroon, yet this information is crucial for better understanding of the proliferation of these vectors in our environment. This explains why we undertook the present study to assess the bionomic and distribution of Aedes mosquito species in Yaoundé.
Methodology: From november 2019 to November 2020, entomological field surveys were carried out in six districts of Yaoundé, during which Aedes aquatic breeding habitats were characterized in addition to adult and larval collections. Larvae collected were brought back to the OCEAC insectary for rearing then, these mosquitoes were morphological identified and adults were used to perform insecticide bioassay.
Results and discussion: A total of 429 breeding sites (artificial and natural) were identified during the study, including 244 (56.88%) sites in the rainy season and 185 sites (43.12%) during dry season. Discarded tires (181) in the environment were the most abundant Aedes breeding habitats followed by plastic containers (143). Most of the breeding sites were situated close to human dwellings. Aedes albopictus was the most abundant specie collected. This species showed high densities in both urban and peri-urban areas. Aedes aegypti was mostly recorded in rural areas.
Conclusion:This study revealed that Aedes mosquito species could be found in a wide variety of breeding habitats in Yaoundé. In addition, the invasive Aedes albopictus species was the predominant species in the different study sites. and Aedes aegypti.
Key words: Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, breeding sites, Yaoundé, Cameroon.