Introduction : The low rate of quality water supply observed in most Cameroonian regions forces the populations to use surface and groundwater for their needs. These waters, subject to various sources of human pollution, especially faecal pollution, promote the dissemination and transmission of infectious forms of parasites in humans. In order to determine the malacological and parasitological profiles in the Center-Cameroon Region, this study was carried out from July 2020 to March 2021 in some aquatic environments in the Districts of Ndikiniméki and Yaoundé III.
Methodology : The malacological and parasitological analyzes were carried out on molluscs and sludge respectively, followed by the quantification of the parasites using the Kato-katz technique. The morphological identification of the molluscs was carried out using appropriate identification keys under a binocular magnifying glass. The cercarial emissivity tests were carried out at two-day intervals for thirty days under an artificial light source for two hours.
Results and discussion : In total, five species of molluscs were identified (Biomphalaria pfeifferi, Melanoides tuberculata, Mytilus sp., Physa acuta and Potadoma sp.) with a predominance of the species M. tuberculata (46.58%). Analysis of the mollusc diversity and equitability indices showed that the Mandjon River would be very diversified with a diversity index of 0.97 and that the species would be fairly distributed (with an equity index of 0.96). The parasitological study of the sludge revealed the presence of 11 species of intestinal parasites in the different sites with a total parasite density of 4632 parasites / g of sludge. Among the parasites found, the protozoa were the most represented, ie 82.38%. The highest density of intestinal parasites, ie 2880 parasites / g of sludge, was observed in the ex-quarry lake of Ngoa-Ekéllé where the Entamoeba histolytica species reached 1776 parasites / g of sludge. In addition, Schistosoma sp. was identified in this site as miracidium with a density of 24 parasites / g of sludge. In Ndikiniméki, the parasite density was greatest in the Mandjon stream (960 parasites / g sludge) with a predominance of the amoeba E. histolytica (864 parasites / g sludge). Cercarial emission tests were negative in these collected molluscs.
Conclusion : These results could reflect the health status of the populations and thus constituting a risk of infestation of the latter by these parasites. In order to avoid these parasitoses, this water must be treated before any use.
Keywords: Profiles, malacological, parasitological, Ndikiniméki, Yaoundé III.